Mechanisms of Nutrition: How Can Nutrition Do All That?

Lesson
Materials

Welcome to lesson 4 of our module “The Power of Nutrition”: Mechanisms of Nutrition: How Can Nutrition Do All That?

We start the lesson with a look at the components of our diet and the mechanisms that relate diet to health. The second part looks at the important mechanisms related to NCDs: insulin resistance, chronic low-grade inflammation, and oxidative stress.

What will I learn in this lesson?

  • An overview of the key components of our food (macronutrients, micronutrients, fibre and phytochemicals).
  • The main underlying mechanisms between food and our health.
  • Three mechanisms of how diet can lead to disease: hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, chronic low-grade inflammation, and oxidative stress.

Before moving on to the next lesson, we recommend that you watch the video and pass the quiz.

Note: In each video lesson, the key facts and learnings will be sent to your module cheat sheet, which will become available for PAN members after completing the final test.

 

Sources

Intro dietary compounds
Taschenatlas Ernährung. Biesalski H, Grimm P, Nowitzki-Grimm S, Hrsg. 7., unveränderte Auflage. Stuttgart: Thieme; 2017. doi:10.1055/b-005-143652

Macronutrient-based dietary recommendation
https://www.dge.de/wissenschaft/referenzwerte/?L=0 (last access: 2021-05-25)

Hyperglycemia and insulin resistance
Lei, LM et al. “Exosomes and Obesity-Related Insulin Resistance.” Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology 9 (March 18, 2021): 651996. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.651996.

Chronic low-grade inflammation
Ghemrawi, R et al. “Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Metabolic Disorders.” Cells 7, no. 6 (June 19, 2018): 63. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells7060063.

Oxidative stress
Molica, F et al. “Adipokines at the Crossroad between Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease.” Thrombosis and Haemostasis 113, no. 3 (March 2015): 553–66. https://doi.org/10.1160/TH14-06-0513.
Nakamura, K et al. “Adipokines: A Link between Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease.” Journal of Cardiology 63, no. 4 (April 2014): 250–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jjcc.2013.11.006.

Additional Attribution

Background music in video: https://www.bensound.com/royalty-free-music

Metabolic pathways diagram in video: CC BY-SA 4.0  by Evans Love. 2016 https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Metabolism_-_Pathways.jpg

The insulin resistance diagram in the video was based on this image:
Hiriart, M. et al. (2014). Pancreatic Beta Cells in Metabolic Syndrome. 10.1007/978-94-007-6884-0_27-2. https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Cytokines-contribution-to-insulin-resistance-and-b-cell-dysfunction-in-the-metabolic_fig4_278697061

Lesson Content